When does the child’s psychomotor development begin?
Speaking of psychomotor development does not necessarily mean skills that are visible to those around you. “We assume that there are 4 main pillars in psychomotor development worldwide: motor skillsthe sensualitythe Understandingand the communication – this last dimension includes the aspects psycho-affective and emotionally“ summarizes Aude Buil.
The development of the child therefore begins even before birth, in utero, during its fetal life – a time when the main neurological and physiological functions are structured.
“These functions allow him – after birth – to discover and increase his abilities,” continues the expert.
What are the stages of the baby’s psychomotor development month by month?
As soon as they are born, the very young continue their development based on the varied experiences of their physical and human environment. The 4 major axes of psychomotor development develop synergistically and reinforce each other as the baby grows.
“Large acquisitions are often associated with strong moments in conquering autonomy: first rides that positions him as an actor of his body towards discovery, the seated position that frees the hands, that develops manual motor skills, walk giving him access to greater mobility, thelanguage access that formalizes the communication that first evolved from the body, through what is known as non-verbal communication – the gaze, the posture, the intentional gestures, etc.,” explains Aude Buil.
These major purchases are therefore essential points that are considered to be indicators of good child development.
Infants under one month old: archaic reflexes
At birth, the newborn moves in a disorderly, jerky, and arbitrary manner. “He has very little control over his motor skills, which are largely based on reflexes resulting from the evolution of our species.” explains the psychomotor therapist. The baby has them grasp reflex – also called the grasp reflex – which consists in closing the hand firmly on an object that comes into contact with the palm.
But these first reflex movements are not in vain or pointless. “One of their functions is to allow a first appropriation of the body to move, to facilitate the first interactions and to serve as a breeding ground for voluntary motor skills,” she specifies.
Between 1 and 4 months: I discover my body
The toddler progresses quite quickly in the first four months and the movements he makes become more and more controlled. His waking hours are getting longer and more frequent Baby seems to be more and more interested in the world around him. His sensory development is refined: he begins to distinguish colors, is sensitive to smells, sounds and perfectly recognizes the voice of his parents.
Aude Buil, PhD in psychomotor medicine: “This is also the moment when he starts to chirp and he gradually manages to hold his head up: two very important elements for the rest of his development.”
In fact, it takes about 3 to 4 months for the child’s body axis to be straightened so that it can keep its back and head straight.
In those first few months personal hygiene – Baths, massages, body games – a important role in the baby’s sensory developmentand allow him to discover his body in interaction with his parents.
Between 4 and 8 months: I develop a perception
During these months, the baby’s fine motor skills are refined. The grasping reflex gradually disappears voluntary grasping : he learns it control your handsto keep them in his field of vision and gradually take them and then release them. The 7th and 8th months mark the development of the lower pincer grip: between the thumb and little finger. “It’s a time when baby also puts a lot of objects in their mouths, which is important for both object discovery and learning stimulate the orofacial sphere which will support the development of language,” explains the psychomotor specialist.
The baby begins to crawl motorically at about 6 months, rolls from tummy to back and back onto tummy and sits up independently.
Between 8 and 12 months: I explore the world
These few months highlight the baby’s motor development. After exploring his motor skills on the ground, baby is ready for themAcquiring the standing position at the end of which the parents often eagerly await a walk! “Walking is generally acquired between 10 and 18 months: during this period it is very important to let the child explore freely and safely, without wanting to anticipate the various achievements,” emphasizes the psychomotor specialist. No pressure or competition So let’s let the baby progress at his own pace!
He often begins by walking sideways, holding onto furniture, then standing alone without support, finally taking the first few steps without holding on. His gait is initially hesitant and unstable, only after a few months does he gain confidence.
On the grip side: The upper claw – namely between the thumb and forefinger – begins around the 9th to 10th month and is perfected towards the end of the first year of life.
Between 12 and 18 months: my first drawings
The enrichment of the child’s motor skills allows him to discover, explore and learn to use his body more and more efficiently. “This is also how he creates his landmarks in space,” the psychomotorist points out. At the same time his fine motor skills and his skill develop.
He is able to manipulate various objects, passing them from hand to hand, taking them and giving them back.
“Baby discovers the world of objects: he stacks, matches simple shapes, but also doodles lots be alone and turn the pages of a book,” lists Aude Buil.
Between 1 ½ and 2 years: the big improvement
The child improves on all psychomotor levels: both in controlling his body and movements, and in interacting with his environment. “He’s getting better at walking and balancing through various activities—climbing, bending, kicking a ball—and even starting to do it run. With fine motor skills, he is getting better and better at coordinating his two hands more complex tasks like dressing, drawing, screwing on and off” explains the psychomotor specialist.
It is also a time when social interactions are increasing important and rich. Baby asserts itself, enjoys exchange, but also resistance: that’s it “No” timing. “During those few months, the language really exploded with words, then short sentences and a very rapid enrichment of their vocabulary,” adds Aude Buil.
Between 2 and 3 years: the explosion of skills
If there is a period when capabilities Of the child multiply, That’s it. “This is the moment when he will make the fastest progress in all areas,” summarizes the expert. All of his advancements will solidify the skills he will then use to develop his first ones Learn School. “The child runs, jumps, develops their attention, speaks better and better, interacts more with their peers and makes progress in language. design He is also very precise and his manipulations are becoming more and more precise and subtle,” describes Aude Buil.
From baby he becomes toddler: his character and personality take shape and assert themselves. The sound development intelligence Symbolism is used: he thinks and loves to reproduce adult behavior.
What is a psychomotor disorder and when can we speak of retardation?
A baby who cannot walk at 15 months or is still strugglingdress at the age of 2 1/2 he suffers from a psychomotor retardation ? Don’t worry: children do not develop all areas linearly and synchronously, and all stages of psychomotor development are not acquired at a certain age, but in time ranges. “It remains important to determine whether the development in the different areas of psychomotor development is harmonious and whether the most important acquisitions to be expected are available in an adjusted time frame within these bandwidths,” explains the expert, who also takes into account the quality of the acquisitions in more detail. When in doubt, parents should not hesitate to address it. to the doctor accompanying the childwho can, if necessary, refer him to a competent psychomotor specialist.
Any parent may be tempted to help their child through the developmental stages, but is it possible, and even desirable? “The main thing is that you have to accompany the child in his exploration, without doing it for him or wanting to go too fast, putting him in situations or postures that he will not have discovered himself”, emphasizes the psychomotorist, who discourages the use of devices such as verticalizers, walkers and others Youpala.
When the baby is still a toddler, it’s best to be on the floor as regularly as possible.
Aude Buil: “If we can be tempted to show him and help him physically, it often proves counterproductive for the child and his quest for autonomy”
The child needs feel safe, confidentbut also authorized to explore “this goes through a safe environment, of course, but also through regular encouragement and a rating his small and large successes,” the specialist recalls. But if he cares about nurturing him, it’s just as important to know him set limits, slow. “You are an integral part of the benevolent support he needs to grow, thrive and feel empowered to continue exploring and making new acquisitions,” concludes Aude Buil. the practice a sport or a musical instrument also play an important role in the motor development of the child: we therefore do not hesitate to offer them this type of activity.
Finally, we have to admit and accept that the course is not even and linear. Periods of rapid advancement can be followed by slowing down or sometimes even regression without you having to worry about it.